Introduction to the Essay Form


Introduction to the Essay Form

💬Essays are like literary magic tricks – they can educate, persuade, entertain, and provoke thought all at once. So, let’s begin by understanding what exactly an essay is.


An essay is a non- fictional literary form of writing that presents an author’s argument, perspective, or exploration of a particular topic or idea. Essays are characterized by their structured and coherent organization, as well as their ability to convey information, provoke thought, persuade and entertain readers. Essays come in various shapes and sizes, each with its own purpose and style. They can vary in length from short pieces to lengthy treatises and are a common form of academic, journalistic, and creative expression. A famous English essayist, Aldous Huxley defines essays as, “a literary device for saying almost everything about almost anything.” A good essay is like a curtain that draws around us, not out – it invites us in, to explore and discover.


Origin and Development of Essay Form

The essay form has a rich and intricate history that spans centuries, evolving through different cultures and periods. The origin of the ‘essay’ form can be traced back to ancient Greek civilizations, where philosophers like Plato and Aristotle used dialogue and prose to explore ideas. These early writings laid the foundation for structured argumentation and critical thinking. For example, Plato’s Republic is an essay that deals with the subject of an ideal state and presents details about how we can achieve the state of utopia.

In the Roman era, writers like Seneca and Cicero penned letters and speeches that resembled the modern essay in their argumentative and reflective nature. Seneca’s “Essays” and Cicero’s “On Friendship” are notable examples.

However, essay as a form did not come into existence before around 1800 years, the period of the European Renaissance. The genesis of the modern essay form is often credited to Michel de Montaigne, a 16th-century French philosopher. Montaigne was more regarded as a politician during his days, than a philosopher.

The term ‘essay’ comes from the title of the collection of Montaigne’s philosophical writings, “Essais”,which is derived from the French verb “essayer” which means “to try” or “to attempt”. Montaigne “tried” to delve into whatever subject he chose to write on. He tried to express his ideas and perception about those subjects. He tried to express his subjective voice through his “Essais”. He famously wrote “ I am myself the matter of my book” and that very subjectivity define the essay form.

As we move into the 17th century, the essay form continued to evolve. Writers like Francis Bacon and Thomas Browne contributed to its development. Bacon’s essays, characterized by their concise and aphoristic (terse and witty and like a maxim) style, emphasized the use of reason and observation. Sir Thomas Browne, on the other hand, employed an ornate and introspective prose style. In Religio Medici, he delves into his own beliefs and doubts, offering a personal reflection on religion and science.

The 18th century, known as the Age of Enlightenment, brought about a surge in essay writing. Philosophers like Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau used essays to convey their ideas on reason, freedom, and society. The periodical essay also became popular, with Joseph Addison and Richard Steele‘s The Spectator being influential examples.

The 19th century witnessed the rise of the personal essay, with authors like Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau exploring individual experiences and perspectives. Meanwhile, essayists like Thomas De Quincey and Charles Lamb embraced a more conversational and reflective style. Lamb’s essays often featured a conversational tone and a focus on everyday life. His essays exemplify his ability to blend personal emotions with literary artistry.

The 20th century continued to see the essay form diversify. Essayists like Virginia Woolf and George Orwell used the essay to explore social and political issues. In her essay “A Room of One’s Own,” Woolf addresses issues of gender inequality and women’s access to education and creative expression. She famously writes, “A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction.” Similarly In “Shooting an Elephant,” Orwell reflects on the complexities of imperialism and the moral dilemmas he faced as a British police officer in colonial Burma.

In the 21st century, the essay remains a vibrant and adaptable form of expression. Technology has allowed for the proliferation of online essays and blogs, while contemporary essayists like Ta-Nehisi Coates and Roxane Gay have gained prominence for their thought-provoking pieces on race, identity, and culture.


Types Of Essays

Essays come in various forms, each designed for a specific purpose:

Expository Essay 

Expository essays are a type of essay where the writer aims to explain or inform the reader about a particular topic or subject. They are characterized by their clarity, objectivity, and reliance on facts, statistics, and evidence. These kind of essays do not express author’s personal opinion. For example:

  • An essay explaining the process of photosynthesis in plants, detailing the stages involved and their significance.
  • An essay on Immune system would outline the functions of the immune system, including its role in defending the body against pathogens, offering insights into how our bodies protect us from infections.

Persuasive Essay

A persuasive essay is a type of essay where the writer aims to convince the reader of a particular argument or viewpoint. It relies on persuasive techniques such as logical reasoning, evidence, and emotional appeals to sway the reader’s opinion. Here are some examples of persuasive essay topics:

  • A Persuasive Essay on the ‘Importance of Exercise.’ Here, the writer would advocate for regular exercise by citing health benefits, reduced healthcare costs, and improved quality of life, aiming to persuade readers to adopt a more active lifestyle.
  • Persuasive Essay on the ‘Benefits of Reading.’ The writer persuades readers of the intellectual and personal growth that reading fosters, emphasizing its role in improving vocabulary, critical thinking, and empathy.

Descriptive Essay

A descriptive essay is a type of essay in which the writer uses vivid language to paint a detailed picture of a person, place, object, event, or experience for the reader. Descriptive essays aim to evoke sensory experiences and create a strong emotional connection with the subject. Here are some examples of descriptive essay topics:

  • Descriptive Essay on a ‘Vibrant Street Market.’ Here, the writer paints a bustling scene of a colorful street market, capturing the sights, sounds, and vibrant energy of vendors and shoppers.
  • Descriptive Essay on a ‘Historic Landmark.’ This essay provides a detailed description of a famous landmark like the Red Fort or the Taj Mahal, allowing the reader to visualize its grandeur and historical significance.

Narrative Essay

Narrative essays tell a story or recount personal experiences. It’s about sharing moments, emotions, and life lessons. They often include elements of storytelling, such as characters, plot, and dialogue, to engage the reader. For instance;

  • Narrative Essay on Overcoming a Challenge. In this essay, the writer tells the story of facing and conquering a significant obstacle, whether it’s a personal struggle, a difficult decision, or an adversity like illness or loss.
  • Narrative Essay on a Friendship or Relationship. Here, the writer narrates the development of a close friendship or a meaningful relationship, exploring the moments that brought them together and the lessons learned along the way.

Argumentative Essay

Similar to persuasive essays, argumentative essays present a clear argument or thesis statement. But, it’s not just about stating an opinion; it’s about proving it.  They provide evidence and reasoning to support their claims and often address counterarguments. Some examples of argumentative essay are:

  • Argumentative Essay on Social Media’s Impact on Society. This essay asserts that social media has negative effects on mental health and interpersonal relationships, supporting the argument with studies on addiction, cyberbullying, and privacy concerns.
  • Argumentative Essay on Climate Change. This essay takes a stance on the reality of climate change, presenting scientific evidence, data on rising temperatures, and the consensus among climate scientists to support the argument for urgent action.



In summary, the essay form has a rich history, dating back to ancient Greece and Rome. It took on its modern shape during the Renaissance, thanks to Michel de Montaigne‘s pioneering work. Over the centuries, notable essayists like Bacon, Browne, Woolf, and Orwell have further developed and diversified the genre. Today, the essay continues to thrive, adapting to the digital age with contemporary voices addressing pressing issues. It remains a versatile and vital form of expression, reflecting the evolution of human thought and society.


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